- In electric heaters, electrical energy is converted to sensible internal energy.

-The forms of energy involved are electrical energy and sensible internal energy. Electrical energy is converted to sensible internal energy, which is transferred to the water as heat.

-The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame. The microscopic forms of energy, on the other hand, are those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity, and are independent of outside reference frames.

-The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy. In the absence of magnetic, electrical and surface tension effects, the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic, potential, and internal energies.

-The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible, latent, chemical and nuclear energies. The sensible internal energy is due to translational, rotational, and vibrational effects.

-Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy, and it is referred to as heat in daily life.

-The mechanical energy is the form of energy that can be converted to mechanical work completely and directly by a mechanical device such as a propeller.

It differs from thermal energy in that thermal energy cannot be converted to work directly and completely. The forms of mechanical energy of a fluid stream are kinetic, potential, and flow energies.

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