The pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure is called the gage pressure, and the pressure relative to an absolute vacuum is called absolute pressure.

The atmospheric pressure, which is the external pressure exerted on the skin, decreases with increasing elevation. Therefore, the pressure is lower at higher elevations.

As a result, the difference between the blood pressure in the veins and the air pressure outside increases. This pressure imbalance may cause some thin-walled veins such as the ones in the nose to burst, causing bleeding.

The shortness of breath is caused by the lower air density at higher elevations, and thus lower amount of oxygen per unit volume.

No, the absolute pressure in a liquid of constant density does not double when the depth is doubled. It is the gage pressure that doubles when the depth is doubled.

If the lengths of the sides of the tiny cube suspended in water by a string are very small, the magnitudes of the pressures on all sides of the cube will be the same.

Pascal’s principle states that the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. This is a consequence of the pressure in a fluid remaining constant in the horizontal direction. An example of Pascal’s principle is the operation of the hydraulic car jack.

The density of air at sea level is higher than the density of air on top of a high mountain. Therefore, the volume flow rates of the two fans running at identical speeds will be the same, but the mass flow rate of the fan at sea level will be higher.

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