A warm air furnace is a device in which gaseous or liquid fuel is directly fired or electric resistance heaters are used to heat the warm supply air. Natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), oil, electric energy, or occasionally wood may be used as the fuel or energy input.
Among these, natural gas is most widely used. In a warm air furnace, the warm air flow could be upflow, in which the warm air is discharged at the top, as shown in Figure 9.10.1(a) and (b); downflow, with the warm air discharged at the bottom; or horizontal flow, with the warm air discharged horizontally.
Natural Vent Combustion Systems. There are two types of combustion systems in a natural gas-fired warm air furnace: natural vent or power vent combustion systems. In a natural vent or atmospheric vent combustion system, the buoyancy of the combustion products carries the flue gas flowing through the heat exchanger and draft hood, discharging from the chimney or vent pipe.
The gas burner is an atmospheric burner. In an atmospheric burner, air is exracted for combustion by the suction effect of the high-velocity discharged gas and the buoyance effect of the combustion air. An atmospheric burner can be either an in-shot or an up-shot burner or multiple ports. Atmospheric burners are simple, require only a minimal draft of air, and need sufficient gas pressure for normal functioning.
Two types of ignition have been used in burners: standing pilot and spark ignition. In standing pilot ignition, the small pilot flame is monitored by a sensor and the gas supply is shut off if the flame is extinguished. Spark ignition fires intermittently only when ignition is required. It saves gas fuel if the furnace is not operating.
In a natural vent combustion system, the heat exchanger is often made from cold-rolled steel or aluminized steel in the shape of a clamshell or S. A fan or blower is always used to force the recirculating air flowing over the heat exchanger and distribute the heated air to the conditioned space.
A low-efficiency disposable air filter is often located upstream of the fan to remove dust from the recirculating air. A draft hood is also installed to connect the flue gas exit at the top of the heat exchanger to a vent pipe or chimney.
A relief air opening is employed to guarantee that the pressure at the flue gas exit is atmospheric and operates safely even if the chimney is blocked. The outer casing of the furnace is generally made of heavy-gauge steel with access panels.
Power Vent Combustion Systems. In a power vent combustion system, either a forced draft fan is used to supply the combustion air or an induced draft fan is used to induce the flue gas to the vent pipe or chimney. A power vent is often used for a large gas furnace or a high-efficiency gas furnace with condensing heat exchangers.
Gas burners in a power vent system are called power burners. The gas supply to the power burner is controlled by a pressure regulator and a gas valve to control the firing rate. Intermittent spark ignition and hot surface ignition that ignites the main burners directly are often used.
Usually, there are two heat exchangers in a power vent combustion system: a primary heat exchanger and a secondary or condensing heat exchanger. The primary heat exchanger constitutes the heating surface of the combustion chamber.
When the water vapor in the flue gas is condensed by indirect contact with the recirculating air, part of the latent heat of condensation released is absorbed by the air. Thus the furnace efficiency is increased in the secondary or condensing heat exchanger.
Both primary and secondary heat exchangers are made from corrosion-resistant steel. A fan is also used to force the recirculating air to flow over the heat exchangers and to distribute the heated air to the conditioned space.
Most natural gas furnaces can use LPG. LPG needs a pressure of 10 in. WG at the manifold, compared with 3 to 4 in. for natural gas. It also needs more primary air for gas burners. Oil furnaces are usually of forced draft and installed with pressure-atomizing burners. The oil pressure and the orifice size of the injection nozzle control the firing rate.