Energy is the capacity for doing work, generating heat, and emitting light. The equation for work is the force, which is the mass time the gravity times the distance. Heat is the ability to change the temperature of an object or phase of a substance.

For example, heat changes a solid into a liquid or a liquid into a vapor. Heat is part of the definition of energy. Another part of the definition of energy is radiation, which is the light and energy emitted in the form of waves traveling at the speed of light.

Energy is measured in units of calorie, quad, and joule. A kilocalorie is the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. The quad unit is used to measure energy needed for big countries. The final measurement of energy is joules.

Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving quality of life

These renewable, non-commercial sources have been used extensively for hundreds of years but in a primitive and ineffective way. Indiscriminate use of non-commercial energy sources is leading to an energy crisis in the rural areas. Seventh Plan laid emphasis on the development and accelerated utilisation of renewable energy sources in rural and urban areas.

A major Policy of the Government is directed towards increasing the use of coal in household and of electricity in transport sector in order to reduce dependence on oil, which is becoming scarce gradually.

The Government has formulated an energy policy with objectives of ensuring adequate energy supply at minimum cost, achieving self-sufficiency in energy supplies and protecting environment from adverse impact of utilising energy resources in an injudicious manner. Main elements of the policy are:

1. Accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy resources-oil, coal, hydro and nuclear power;
2. Intensification of exploration to increase indigenous production of oil and gas;
3. Management of demand for oil and other forms of energy;
4. Energy conservation and management;
5. Optimisation of utilisation of existing capacity in the country;
6. Development and exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy requirements of rural communities;
7. Intensification of research and development activities in new and renewable energy sources; and
8. Organisation of training far personnel engaged at various levels in the energy sector.

Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs of the society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of Government viz., Department of Power, Coal and Petroleum and Natural Gas. Development and promotion of non-conventional/alternate/new and renewable sources of energy such as Solar, Wind and Bio-energy, etc., are also getting sustained attention from the Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources created in September, 1982. Nuclear Energy Development is being geared up by the Department of Atomic Energy to contribute significantly to overall energy availability in the Country.

Energy Conservation is being given the highest-priority and is being used as a tool to bridge the gaps between demand and supply of energy. An autonomous body, namely Energy Management Centre, has been set up on ten April, 1989, as a nodal agency for energy conservation projects.

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