How Gas Furnace Operation Works?

The gas furnace is the simplest to operate and understand. Therefore, we will use it here to look at a typical heating system. This type of natural-gas furnace is used to heat millions of homes in the United States.

Figure below shows a simple circuit needed to control a furnace with a blower.

Simple one-stage furnace control system.

Note the location of the blower switch and the limit switch. The transformer provides low voltage for control of the gas solenoid. If the limit switch opens (it is shown in a closed position), there is no power to the transformer and the gas solenoid cannot energize.

This is a safety precaution, because the limit switch will open if the furnace gets too hot. When the thermostat closes, it provides 24 volts to the gas solenoid, which energizes and turns on the gas.

The gas is ignited by the pilot light and provides heat to the plenum of the furnace. When the air in the plenum reaches 120 degrees F, the fan switch closes and the fan starts. The fan switch provides the necessary 120 volts to the fan motor for it to operate.

Once the room has heated up to the desired thermostat setting, the thermostat opens. When it opens, the gas solenoid is de-energized, and the spring action of the solenoid causes it to close off the gas supply, thereby turning off the source of heat.

When the plenum on top of the furnace reaches 90 degrees F, the blower switch opens and turns off the blower. As the room cools down, causing the thermostat to once again close, the cycle starts over again.

The gas solenoid opens to let in the gas, and the pilot light ignites it. The heat causes the temperature to rise in the plenum above the limit switch’s setting, and the switch closes to start the blower.

Once the thermostat setting has been reached, it opens and causes the gas solenoid to turn off the gas supply. The blower continues to run until the temperature in the plenum reaches 90 degrees F, and it turns off the blower by opening.

This cycle is repeated over and over again to keep the room or house at a desired temperature.

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Vanessa said...

this explains it all. I have been looking for this picture for a long time..thanks for sharing this pic of Gas Furnaces

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Unknown said...

Very detailed info you have shared here about gas furnaces, appreciate this work, thanks a lot.

steve91 said...

This is a very nice info you have shared here about gas furnaces, appreciate this work.

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Unknown said...

Nice diagram of gas furnace you attached with the article. Its helps me understand how a furnace works. Thanks for the article.

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