What Is A Water Hydraulic Turbine?

Turbine is a machine wherein rotary motion is obtained by centrifugal forces, which result from a change in the direction of high velocity fluid jet that issues from a nozzle. Water turbine is a prime mover, which uses water as the working substance to generate power.

A water turbine uses the potential and kinetic energy of water and converts it into usable mechanical energy. The fluid energy is available in the natural or artificial high level water reservoirs, which are created by constructing dams at appropriate places in the flow path of rivers.

When water from the reservoir is taken to the turbine, transfer of energy takes place in the blade passages of the unit. Hydraulic turbines in the form of water wheels have been used since ages; presently their application lies in the field of electric power generation.

The mechanical energy made available at the turbine shaft is used to run an electric generator, which is directly coupled, to the turbine shaft. The power generated by utilizing the potential and kinetic energy of water has the advantages of high efficiency, operational flexibility, low wear tear, and ease of maintenance.

Despite the heavy capital cost involved in constructing dams and reservoirs, in running pipelines and in turbine installation (when compared to an equivalent thermal power plant) different countries have tried to tap all their waterpower resources.

Appropriate types of water turbines have been installed for most efficient utilization.

Hydroelectric power is a significant contributor to the world’s energy sources.

Water (hydraulic) turbines have been broadly classified as,
1. Impulse 2. Reaction

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