Most thermoplastic pipes and fittings are made from materials containing no reinforcements, although fillers are occasionally used. Pipe is manufactured by the extrusion process, whereby molten material is continuously forced through a die that shapes the product.

After being formed by the die, the soft pipe is simultaneously sized and hardened by cooling it with water. Fittings and valves are usually produced by the injection-molding process, in which molten plastic is forced under pressure into a closed metal mold.

After cooling, the mold is opened and the finished part is removed. Some items, especially larger-sized fittings for which there is insufficient demand to justify construction of injection-molding tooling, are fabricated from pipe sections, or sheets, by utilizing thermal or solvent cementing fusion techniques.

To compensate for the lower strength, the fitting may either be made from a heavier wall stock or reinforced with a fiberglass-resin overwrap. The engineer designing a pressure-rated system should make sure that the pressure ratings of the selected fittings are adequate.

There is some thermoplastic pipe made of a cellular-core construction (for example, ASTM* F 628) in which the pipe wall consists of thin inner and outer solid skins sandwiching a high-density foam. The primary benefit of such construction is improved ring and longitudinal (beam) stiffness in relation to the material used.

Because the foam-wall structure results in some loss of strength, applications for cellular-core pipe are in nonpressure uses, such as for above- and below-ground drainage piping, which can take advantage of the more material-efficient ring and beam stiffness.

For buried nonpressure applications, a composite pipe (ASTM D 2680) is produced that consists of two concentric tubes that are integrally braced with a truss webbing. The resultant openings between the concentric tubes are filled with a lightweight concrete. This construction increases both the ring and the beam stiffness. Composite pipe is used only for nonpressure buried applications such as sewerage and drainage.

Several other processes for improving the radial (i.e., ring) stiffness of thermoplastic pipe for buried applications have in common the formation of some type of rib reinforcement.A well-established technique is forming corrugations in the pipe wall.

Corrugated polyethylene pipe (ASTM F 405) in sizes from 2 to 12 in (5 to 30 cm) is widely used for building foundations, land, highway, and agricultural drainage, and communications ducts. Ribbed pipe also is commercially made by the continuous spiral winding of the plastic over a mandrel of a specially shaped profile.

Adjacent layers of this profile are fused to each other to form a cylinder that is smooth on the inside and has ribbed reinforcements on the outside. The smooth inside diameter is preferable for many applications, such as sewerage, because it creates no flow disturbances. Pipes with ribbed construction are available in PVC and polyethylene (PE).

PE pipes, which are made with hollow ribs to minimize material usage, are available in sizes from 18 to 120 in (45 cm to 3 m) in diameter.  

Related post

No comments:

Post a Comment